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结构化阅读:在积累词汇和语法的基础上,提升托福阅读能力

2018-03-13 17:35     供稿单位: 新航道    

出国英语考试有哪些 雅思6.5是什么水平 雅思阅读评分标准 托福阅读评分标准 雅思和托福的区别

  托福阅读一直被认为是托福考试中必须拿高分的单项。因为我们已经习惯了乐此不疲地背单词,分析长难句,甚至做逐句翻译等等。但是,我们却陷入了阅读速度慢,整合、预判信息的能力弱,掌握的信息七零八落的怪圈。那么如何在踏踏实实积累词汇和语法知识的基础上,进一步提升阅读能力呢?我们一起来看看结构化阅读。

 

 

  - 1 -结构化阅读

  顾名思义,结构化阅读即从托福阅读结构出发,从整体着眼纵观全文,不再为小词小句伤脑,而是把握全文的框架,这样有利于形成思维预判,增强学生做题信心。

  我们先来一起探寻托福阅读本身的奥秘,(如上图所示),托福文章由初级的词汇题到总结题,信息归纳题等10 个不同的题型其实正是对应了从单词、句子、段落到篇章不同级别的难度要求,对学生的能力要求也是逐级递增的。学习了托福阅读本身的出题特点后可以鲜明的推断出其结构性强,学术型强的特点。

 

  结构化的文章凸显了可预测的特点,而学术表达的需求正是通过文章结构衍生出的。结合 TPO 阅读真题对比分析后大致可以将托福阅读文章分成六大基本类别:研究描述类、研究叙述类、对比类、现象解释类、问题解决类以及观点论证类。具体的 TPO 对应分类如下:

 

  ① 研究描述:研究对象 → 方面1 / 方面2

  TPO 09 - Reflection in Teaching

  TPO 11 - Ancient Egyptian Sculpture

  TPO 14 - Children and Advertising

  TPO 15 - A Warm Blooded Turtle

  TPO 22 - Spartina

  TPO 26 - Energy and the Industrial Revolution

  TPO 29 - Characteristics of Roman Pottery

  TPO 30 - Role of Play in Development

  TPO 33 - Railroads and Commercial Agriculture in Nineteenth Century

  TPO 43 - The Empire of Alexander the Great

  TPO 45 - Wind pollination

  TPO 47 - Roman Cultural Influence on Britain

 

  ② 研究叙述:研究对象  阶段1 → 阶段2

  TPO 02 - Early Cinema

  TPO 06 - Powering the Industrial Revolution

  TPO 09 - The Arrival of Plant Life in Hawaii

  TPO 12 - Transition to Sound in Film

  TPO 16 - Development of the Periodic Table

  TPO 19 - Succession Climax and Ecosystems

  TPO 29 - The History of Waterpower

  TPO 34 - Islamic Art and the Book

  TPO 34 - The Development of Steam Power

  TPO 40 - Ancient Athens

  TPO 46 - The Origins of Writing

 

  ③ 对比分类:研究对象 → 分类1 / 分类2

  TPO 04 - Deer Populations of the Puget Sound

  TPO 07 - Ancient Rome and Greece

  TPO 12 - Water in the Desert

  TPO 13 - Types of Social Groups

  TPO 16 - Planets in Our Solar System

  TPO 17 - Animal Signals in the Rain Forest

  TPO 17 - Symbiotic Relationships

  TPO 20 - Fossil Preservation

  TPO 28 - Buck Rubs and Buck Scrapes

  TPO 32 - Plant Colonization

  TPO 42 - Callisto and Ganymede

  TPO 45 - Feeding Strategies in the Ocean

 

  ④ 现象解释:研究对象 → 解释1 / 解释2

  TPO 02 - Desert Formation

  TPO 05 - The Cambrian Explosion

  TPO 06 - Infantile Amnesia

  TPO 08 - The Rise of Teotihuacán

  TPO 10 - Variations in the Climate

  TPO 10 - Seventeenth - Century European Economic Growth

  TPO 18 - Industrialization in the Netherlands and Scandinavia

  TPO 18 - Lightning

  TPO 20 - Westward Migration

  TPO 21 - Autobiographical Memory

  TPO 24 - Moving into Pueblos

  TPO 29 – Competition

  TPO 31 - Savanna Formation

  TPO 32 - Siam 1851–1910

  TPO 40 - Latitude and Biodiversity

  TPO 42 - Explaining Dinosaur Extinction

  TPO 48 - Chinese Population Growth

  TPO 48 - Climate and Urban Development

 

  ⑤ 问题解决:解决困难 → 方法1 / 方法2

  TPO 04 - Petroleum Resources

  TPO 13 - Methods of Studying Infant Perception

 

  ⑥ 观点论证:观点看法 →  证据1 / 证据2

  TPO 01 - The Origins of Theater

  TPO 02 - The Origins of Cetaceans

  TPO 07 - The Geologic History of the Mediterranean

  TPO 09 - Colonizing the Americas via the Northwest Coast

  TPO 11 - Begging by Nestlings

  TPO 11 - Orientation and Navigation

  TPO 12 - Which Hand Did They Use

  TPO 14 - Pastoralism in Ancient Inner Eurasia

  TPO 15 - Mass Extinctions

  TPO 21 - The Origins of Agriculture

  TPO 26 - Sumer and the First Cities of the Ancient Near East

  TPO 31 - Speciation in Geographically Isolated Populations

  TPO 34 - Protection of Plants by Insects

  TPO 41 - Trade and Early State Formation

  TPO 43 - The Origin of Petroleum

  TPO 46 - Ecosystem Diversity and Stability

 

  - 2 -如何实施结构化阅读

  

  初学托福时,同学们一般未见托福阅读却“闻风丧胆”,练了托福真题却“头晕目眩”。当你的基础能力还未达到一定程度时,面对学术性强的文章常常感觉无聊,也无从下手,错误率自然很高。那么从结构化阅读着手,又是如何一步步地帮助学生进步呢?

 

  老师们可以通过类比的方式从熟悉的事物出发,帮助学生了解什么是现象解释类,研究描述类等等。只有对每种类型的基本结构了如指掌,学生才能又快又好的庖丁解“托福阅读”。

 

  以现象解释类文章为例,从“为什么胖”出发,胖有很多种原因:冬天来了,太冷了懒得动;天天吃美食,是典型的吃货;体质原因,遗传等等,其实就是从各个不同方面解释说明胖的原因。谙熟这类结构后再阅读 TPO 分类中的现象解释类文章,浏览一遍就能看透全文脉络,把枝叶都去掉了只留下主干即可。

 

  以 TPO 02 - Desert Formation 为例,这篇是典型的现象解释类,挑选出文章主旨句:

 

  ① Even in the areas that retain a soil cover, the reduction of vegetation typically results in the loss of the soil's ability to absorb substantial quantities of water.

  ② In some regions, the increase in desert areas is occurring largely as the result of a trend toward drier climatic conditions.

  ③ There is little doubt, however, that desertification in most areas results primarily from human activities rather than natural processes.

 

  得知沙漠的形成有植被减少、干燥的气候条件和人类活动三大原因。全文去除背景(沙漠已经占据了地球陆地面积约四分之一)、细节和总结(亟需一个严谨而有力的保护政策和植被覆盖计划来保护现有土地)外,留下的三大原因正与前文中分析胖的成因一一对应。另外通过背景知识的补充和对框架的理解后,同学们在做题时可以自己 “预测”原因有哪些,等再看原文发现与自己的猜想“不谋而合”后,那做题的自信心岂不更大?

 

  研究描述类文章多见于针对同一事物的不同方面的研究。好比在选择买哪一款车型时,我们总是会从不同的方面考量:外观上拉风吗?空间大吗?舒适感如何?车性能如何?从不同的角度分析事物即可内化为研究描述类结构,在阅读中也可以发现对应的题型,以 TPO 11 - Ancient Egyptian Sculpture 为例,文章从三个方面来研究古埃及雕像:

 

  ① 从外形上都呈现出“正面描绘”的特点:The majority of three-dimensional representations, whether standing, seated, or kneeling, exhibit what is called frontality: they face straight ahead, neither twisting nor turning.

  ② 材质方面,通常是由石头、木材和金属做成的:Statues were normally made of stone, wood, or metal.

  ③ 用途:The function of these is quite different.

 

  那么研究叙述类呢?这类结构与研究描述类比较,同样是研究同一事物,区别则是以时间轴为参照来划分该事物,通过时间的演变其呈现出不同的阶段特征,存在一定的延续性,也是不断进化发展的过程。例如,从身边熟悉的的汉字出发,汉字不可能一产生就很完美,就能满足各个时期生产力发展的需要。从古时的甲骨文到小篆、小篆到隶楷、繁体字到简化字,经过不断的自然流变和改革,汉字的演变过程也是随着时代的进步渐渐不断满足人们发展的需要。

 

  了解这类结构后,我们来一起看看 TPO 29 - The History of Waterpower,随着历史的发展,技术的进步,水利的运用方式也在不断革新:

 

  最起初,人们通过自然界的流水用来减轻人力、牧畜的工作负担(Moving water was one of the earliest energy sources to be harnessed to reduce the workload of people and animals.);

 

  接着,人们发现了流水的妙用而制造了水轮用以灌溉(No one knows exactly when the waterwheel was invented, but irrigation systems existed at least 5,000 years ago, and it seems probable that the earliest waterpower device was the noria, a waterwheel that raised water for irrigation in attached jars.);

 

  后来,为满足需求发明了水力磨来研磨谷物(The earliest waterpower mills were probably vertical-axis mills for grinding corn, known as Norse or Greek mills, which seem to have appeared during the first or second century B.C.);

 

  单单研磨谷物已不能满足多样的需求,人们利用水力同步发展了采矿、炼铁、造纸以及棉毛纺织工业(Raising water and grinding corn were by no means the only uses of the waterpower mill, and during the following centuries, the applications of waterpower kept pace with the developing technologies of mining, iron working, paper making, and the wool and cotton industries.);

 

  后来十九世纪电力工业的崛起及设施齐备的发电厂的建立,水力发电迅速发展起来(The capacity of individual power stations, many of them hydro plants, rose from a few kilowatts to over a megawatt in less than a decade.)。

 

  由此可见,研究叙述类文章有明显的时间烙印,必定是与当时的社会大背景紧密联系的,如果学生掌握了该类文章,学会结合当时的社会背景深入思考,那么对演变的事物发展自然能做到心中有数,从容答题。

 

 

  问题解决类, 如题正是对某一现象出现的问题给与一定的应对措施和方法,但笔者通过对 TPO1-48 的整理发现,该结构多糅合在其他结构中,且占比重很少,就不在此详尽讨论。

 

  相比之下观点论证类文章分布甚广,通常针对某独特现象的产生众说纷纭,但无论是实验证明或实地考察,真实可靠的证据论证了理论 / 猜想的正确性。现实生活中,身边的父母一直都是“侦探家”,比如学校考试成绩不理想时,孩子并没有告诉父母,反而父母通过一系列“蛛丝马迹”发现了考试的失败真相——孩子的日记;面对成绩询问时孩子遮掩的用词;发现孩子心情不好,父母联系了老师等等。观点论证类文章需要大量的证据证明,如 TPO 02 - The Origins of Cetaceans,科学家们为了研究鲸的起源,通过对“活证据”化石来还原陆栖哺乳动物和海洋鲸类之间的联系,探寻鲸的起源奥秘:

 

  从巴基斯坦北部发掘到了最古老的鲸鱼化石 Pakicetus,科学家发现了其实则为食肉哺乳动物和鲸类动物的过渡型(Other features, however, show experts that Pakicetus is a transitional form between a group of extinct flesh- eating mammals, the mesonychids, and cetaceans.);

 

  人们在古地中海残留的沉积物中发现了另一类早期鲸鱼 Basilosaurus,其必定是完全水生的鲸鱼,它们的后肢已经不起任何作用,或者说已经退化(Basilosaurus was undoubtedly a fully marine whale with possibly nonfunctional, or vestigial, hind legs.);

 

  后来对目前已经灭绝的鲸鱼 Ambulocetus natans 的发现强有力的证明了陆栖哺乳动物和海洋鲸类的联系(It was undoubtedly a whale that linked life on land with life at sea.)。

 

  由此,同学们在面对观点论证类文章时需要更多的关注证据本身的细节以及该证据和需要论证的观点之间的内在联系,如同拥有父母敏锐的侦查能力。

 

 

  又如对比类文章, 同样可以先进行类比学习。从常喝的牛奶和可口可乐对比发现牛奶口感滑润、营养价值高、补充钙又给人以舒适感,而可口可乐则完全相反——辣喉、有害健康、影响钙的吸收而又刺激感满满。

 

  通过对二者的对比后熟知了该类结构,再练习 TPO 07 - Ancient Rome and Greece 可以得知二者(Ancient Rome 和 Greece)是对比讨论的,前者是天生水手,后者则是陆地强兵;前者是由分散城邦发展起来的,后者是由单个组织发展起来的;前者注重数量,后者注重质量等等,这种类型的文章预判性会更强,只需要得知古罗马的状况,就可以自然而然的对比推测出希腊的情况,省时又省力,可以为接下来的听力、口语和写作节约更多的精力和能量。

 

  值得注意的是,托福阅读文章结构并不都是典型的单一结构,有很多文章都是由几个不同类型的结构糅杂构成的复杂文章,例如 TPO 05 - The Origin of the Pacific Island People 就是由观点论证和对比分类结构结合而成的,该篇一方面介绍了太平洋群岛居民起源的一些古老的理论如 G. Elliot Smith 和 W. J. Perry理论、Thor Heyerdahl 理论和 Heyerdahl 理论等,另一方面对比分类了这些理论,认为“Contrary to the arguments of some that much of the pacific was settled by Polynesians accidentally marooned after being lost and adrift, it seems reasonable that this feat was accomplished by deliberate colonization expeditions that set out fully stocked with food and domesticated plants and animals.”大家可以先从典型的文章出发,再学习辨认复杂类型的文章,由简单再到复杂,一步一步不断精进。

 

 

 

 - 3 -结构化阅读的意义

 

  1. 通过结构化阅读,有助于培养学生的思维模式,能够帮助形成对阅读文章的整体把控感,跳出“只见树木不见森林”的尴尬处境。同时,结构化阅读能帮助学生建立自信心,提升做题的速度。跨过个拦路虎之后,同学们可以更加从容地进行听力、口语和写作的考试。

 

  2. 结构化阅读的拓展应用性强。可用在托福口语、听力、写作中,对学生答题很有借鉴意义。例如 TPO1 的口语题:Talk about a book you have read that was important to you for some reason. 掌握了结构化阅读的学生可以从不同的方面答题:

 

  套用现象解释结构——这本书对你而言重要性体现在哪些方面?是封面精致、内容吸引人还是老师强烈推荐等。

 

  套用对比类结构——与同龄人常读的情节老套的、令人开心的、有美好结局的娱乐书籍不同,这本书情感跌宕,伤感色彩浓郁,结尾并不美好,反而更令人感同身受,别有一番滋味在心头。

 

  套用研究叙事类结构——小时候看的这本书并没有多大感触,然而随着时间的演变,个人成长心智的不断成熟,在对应的不同阶段对该书又会产生相应的新解释等等,结构化阅读的强大拓展性可见一斑。

 

  ,希望结构化阅读能真正帮助广大托福学子考出心仪的分数,实现精彩人生!欲了解更多考试资讯及备考资源,敬请关注新航道托福考试频道。

 

  注:

  ① 结构化阅读法是阅读方法,适用于有一定的词汇,语法基础的学生。

  ② 由于托福阅读文章多结构复杂,本文精选的部分文章更具典型性,非全套 TPO 分类。

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